雅思閱讀:一文帶你讀懂,應如何結合因果邏輯來解題?


來源:   時間:2019-11-06 14:21:28

雅思閱讀的題目針對文章內容出題,不考背景知識,因此絕大多數題都是對原文的同義改寫。但是,即使文章內容被改得面目全非,句內或句間的邏輯關系(因果、轉折、并列等)是不會變的。結合同學的錯題反饋,本文分析下應如何結合因果邏輯來解題:
 
首先,標記題目中出現的因果邏輯詞:
 
表“原因”
1.“原因” reason/factor/explain/explanation…
2.連詞because/since/as/for/in that…
3.短語
as a result of/ result from/because of/thanks to/due to/owing to/ ascribe   to/ is linked to…
4.隱含表“原因”的短語:derive   from/stem from/be associated with…
表“結果”
1.“結果”result/outcome/effect/impact…
2.連詞so
3.短語
 “因此” as a result/as a consequence/
therefore/thus/consequently…
“導致” result in/lead to/contribute to/give rise to…
4.隱含表“結果”的詞/短語
induce/trigger/fuel/breed/be heightened by...
 
出現以上邏輯詞,同學要理解和分析題目考的是句內還是句間的因果關系。
 
1.判斷題
題目
The bus Paton rode in had poor ventilation because of broken fans.
原文
Or in Charlie Paton’s case, out of the rain. “I was in a bus in Morocco travelling through the desert,” he remembers. “It had been raining and the bus was full of hot, wet people. The windows steamed up and I went to sleep with a towel against the glass. When I woke, the thing was soaking wet. I had to wring it out. And it set me thinking, why was it so wet?”
(PASSAGE3 The Rainmaker,20191026大陸)
分析
通過“the bus was full of hot, wet people. The windows steamed up”,同學讀到旅游巴車窗蒙上水汽,推斷車上通風不好,誤判答案TRUE。這些同學忘記了題目給出通風不好的具體原因。實際上,原文既沒交代原因,也未提到broken fans。因此,題目所述因果關系“因為風扇壞了,所以Paton坐的旅游大巴通風不好”在原文中并不存在,正確答案應為NOT GIVEN.
 
2.選詞填空
題目
People go to art museums because they accept the value of seeing an original work of art. But they do not go to museums to read original manuscripts of novels, perhaps because the availability of novels has depended on 27._____ for so long. (Test 2, Cambridge 10)
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原文
However, if Mona Lisa was a famous novel, few people would bother to go to a museum to read the writer's actual manuscript rather than a printed reproduction. This might be explained by the fact that the novel has evolved precisely because of technological developments that made it possible to print out huge numbers of texts, whereas oil paintings have always been produced as unique objects.
分析
題目:很少人會去博物館讀小說手稿,這是因為,長期以來,人們可依靠_____獲得小說。
很多同學原文因果關系理解不到位,“小說的傳承是由于技術的發展”,誤選C或者I。但,文章提到沒多少人會費工夫去博物館讀小說,他們傾向于讀印刷版。這個現象是因為技術的發展使得大量的文本印刷成為可能。也就是說,批量生產讓人們可得到小說的翻版,因此,很少人會去讀小說手稿。選項中可概括because of technological developments that made it possible to print out huge numbers of texts這一原因的應該是B mass production.
 
3.單選題
題目
17  Protecting large areas of the sea from commercial fishing would result in
A practical benefits for the fishing industry.
B some short-term losses to the fishing industry.
C widespread opposition from the fishing industry.
D certain changes to techniques within the fishing industry.
(Test 8, Cambridge 12)
原文
By protecting large areas from commercial fishing, we could once more see what 18th-century literature describes: ①vast shoals of fish being chased by fin and sperm whales, within sight of the English shore. This policy would ②also greatly boost catches in the surrounding seas.
分析
前2個例題,題目和答案句均有明顯的因果邏輯詞,只要做好單句理解即可解題。而劍12這道選擇題,題目雖有表結果的“result in”,但原文沒有因果邏輯詞幫助解題。因此,同學得有意識去理解句間隱含的因果關系,即“保護海洋免受商業捕撈”導致了___?原文提到保護海洋免受商業捕撈的影響,we could once more see我們可看到2個結果①大量魚群被鯨魚追逐,②極大提高周邊海域的捕撈量。這一措施所帶來的結果對當地漁業是好的,因此選A 對漁業有實際好處。
 
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