理清托福聽力中的讓步轉折邏輯,你的托福試卷還能再漲分!


來源:   時間:2019-12-10 16:29:40

在托?荚囍,聽力部分是不少同學最薄弱最頭疼的一科。因為它對學生的單詞及句子的反應速度及準確度的要求非常高,幾乎要在聽到單詞的一瞬間要馬上反應過來,如果遺漏重要細節,將對文章總體的把握非常不利,聽到的只是各種散亂的信息片段,無法拼湊起來。
 
另外,在聽力考試中,預測能力也是考生能否獲得高分的關鍵。除了加強單詞基礎之外,我們還需要關注和研究聽力中的出題點和文本中常見的邏輯考點。對邏輯考點的敏感度有助于考生準確把握重點信息,簡化筆記,積極預測。本文將分析讓步轉折邏輯在聽力考試中的考察方式。
 
幾乎所有同學都知道轉折邏輯,轉折后面的內容很重要。常見的轉折詞有but, however, nevertheless, unfortunately, yet 等。但是有沒有可能在這些轉折詞出現之前,我們就可以預測到教授接下來可能會進行轉折呢?
 
接下來我們看一個例子,TPO20 Lecture 2一篇環境科學的講座,話題是interglacial periods間冰期。
Now, the typical pattern for an interglacial period, and we have studied several, is that the concentration of carbon dioxide and methane gas actually reaches it... its peak, that is, there is the most carbon dioxide and methane gas, uh, greenhouse gases in the atmosphere just after the beginning of the interglacial period. And then, for reasons which are not entirely clear, the concentration of greenhouse gases gradually goes down. Now, the climate continues to warm for a while because there is a lag effect. But uh, gradually as the concentration of greenhouse gases goes down, Earth starts to cool again, and eventually you slip back into an Ice Age. (此段講解典型模式,間冰期開始后溫室氣體上升,溫度上升,隨后溫室氣體含量下降,最終氣溫下降,回到ice age)
 
Um, however , for the latest interglacial period, the one we are in now,this pattern did not hold, that is, the concentration of carbon dioxide and methane dipped a little bit after, uh, uh, after peaking at the beginning, near the beginning of the interglacial period, but then it began to rise again. Um ... What was different about this interglacial period than the other ones? (典型之后隨之而來的轉折,托?荚囍邢矚g考察特殊性)
 
What does the professor imply about Earth’s climate over the last several million years? Click on 2 answers.
A.Ice ages have alternated with warmer periods.
B.Recent ice ages have not been as cold as earlier ice ages.
C.Interglacial periods have become cooler and cooler overtime.
D.Previous interglacial periods were shorter than the current interglacial period.
 
此題的正確率極低,答案為AD。大部分同學都可以選出A,但是無法選出另一個選項。其實正確選項就考察了這層讓步和轉折的邏輯。讓步部分為教授講解一般情況,經典模式,隨后下一段進行轉折,引出我們現在所在的間冰期跟經典模式不一樣,溫室氣體下降了一點點后,又重新上升,所以我們并沒有回到ice age,仍然處于interglacial period,對應D選項的之前的間冰期比現在的間冰期段短。
 
那么常見的讓步引導詞有哪些呢?一些表示最初,傳統,經典,過去觀點類的引導詞都屬于讓步邏輯,如:originally, initially, traditionally, typically, usually, we used to think, we’ve been thinking, it was thought that, you might think we had thought, we’ve always assumed that… 這些詞是轉折前的常見套路,先引出普遍情況,以前的情況,舊觀點等,做相應的解釋后教授則會順勢引出轉折。出題可出轉折前,也可以出轉折后?偠灾,識別出讓步邏輯可以有利于我們把握考點,預測后文的走向。
 
我們再看一個例子,  TPO1 lecture 2中的一段話,
Uh… Take the Grand Canyon for instance. Now, we geologists thoughtwe had a pretty good idea of how the Grand Canyon in the southwestern United States was formed. We knew that it was formed from sandstone that solidified somewhere between 150 and 300 million years ago. Before it solidified, it was just regular sand. Essentially it was part of a vast desert. And until just recently, most of us thought the sand had come from an ancient mountain range fairly close by that flattened out over time. That’s been the conventional wisdom among geologists for quite some time. (本段為典型的引出舊觀點的段落,讓步標志詞為thought,conventional wisdom,接下來的內容一定是轉折引出新觀點)
But now we’ve learned something different, and quite surprising, using a technique called Uranium-Lead Dating. I should say that Uranium-Lead Dating has been around for quite a while. But there have been some recent refinements. I will get into this in a minute. Anyway, Uranium-Lead Dating has produced some surprises.Two geologists discovered thatabout half of the sand from the Grand Canyon was actually once part of the Appalachian Mountains. (上段的舊觀點認為大峽谷的沙子來源于附近的山脈,新觀點認為有一半是來源于距離比較遠的阿巴拉契亞山脈)That’s really eye-opening news, since the Appalachian Mountain Range is, of course, thousands of kilometers to the east of the Grand Canyon. Sounds pretty unbelievable, right? Of course, the obvious question is how did that sand end up so far west? The theory is that huge rivers and wind carried the sand west where it mixed in with the sand that was already there.
 
Before the use of uranium-lead analysis, where did most geologists think the Grand Canyon sandstone came from?
A.An ancient lake located in the American Southwest
B.A desert that once connected two continents
C.Sands carried by a river from the Appalachian Mountains
D.A nearby mountain range that had flattened out over time
 
本題考察讓步邏輯,在新技術出現之前的舊觀點,答案選D。
  
第三個例子  來自TPO 41 Lecture 4 天文學講座
See in 2009, a group of researchers made an announcement, these two exoplanets, Gliese 581 D and E do have some earth-like qualities. Gliese 581D had actually been discovered a couple of years earlier and when its orbit was originally calculated, it was thought to be too far away from its host star to be warm enough to support a liquid ocean, let alone, carbon-based life.(讓步標志詞為originally,thought to be)But then its orbit was recalculated and now we see that Gliese 581 D is within its host's habitable zone. (轉折引出重新計算之后的不同)
 
What did researchers discover about the planet Gliese 581 d when they reexamined it?
A.It is made entirely of rocks.
B.It is not able to support an ocean.
C.It is smaller than previously thought.
D.It is closer to its host star than previously thought.
 
本題答案為D,如果只聽到轉折,within its host’s habitable zone 可能比較難選出,但結合前一句,以前認為too far away, 那么結合轉折,則可以推出現在計算出的結果是比以前想的要近一些。
 
綜上,讓步轉折邏輯是聽力中的高頻考點,同學們一定要重視,題目可以考察轉折前,即讓步部分,也可以是轉折后。最后同學們可以自測一下,還記得我們剛剛討論過的讓步和轉折的標志詞分別有哪些嗎?如果不記得了請看下文:
 
常見的讓步標志詞,包含但不僅限于:originally, initially, traditionally, typically, usually, we used to think, we’ve been thinking, it was thought that, you might think we had thought, we’ve always assumed that…;常見轉折標志詞有but, however, nevertheless, unfortunately, yet等。
 
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